he Spring Framework is an application framework and inversion of control container for the Java platform. The framework's core features can be used by any Java application, but there are extensions for building web applications on top of the Java EE (Enterprise Edition) platform. Although the framework does not impose any specific programming model, it has become popular in the Java community as an addition to the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) model. The Spring Framework is open source.
Prior to the advent of Enterprise Java Beans (EJB), Java developers needed to use JavaBeans to create Web applications. Although JavaBeans helped in the development of user interface (UI) components, they were not able to provide services, such as transaction management and security, which were required for developing robust and secure enterprise applications. The advent of EJB was seen as a solution to this problem EJB extends the Java components, such as Web and enterprise components, and provides services that help in enterprise application development. However, developing an enterprise application with EJB was not easy, as the developer needed to perform various tasks, such as creating Home and Remote interfaces and implementing lifecycle callback methods which lead to the complexity of providing code for EJBs Due to this complication, developers started looking for an easier way to develop enterprise applications.
The Spring framework(which is commonly known as Spring) has emerged as a solution to all these complications This framework uses various new techniques such as Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP), Plain Old Java Object (POJO), and dependency injection (DI), to develop enterprise applications, thereby removing the complexities involved while developing enterprise applications using EJB, Spring is an open source lightweight framework that allows Java EE 7 developers to build simple, reliable, and scalable enterprise applications. This framework mainly focuses on providing various ways to help you manage your business objects. It made the development of Web applications much easier as compared to classic Java frameworks and Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), such as Java database connectivity(JDBC), JavaServer Pages(JSP), and Java Servlet.
The Spring framework can be considered as a collection of sub-frameworks, also called layers, such as Spring AOP. Spring Object-Relational Mapping (Spring ORM). Spring Web Flow, and Spring Web MVC. It is a lightweight application framework used for developing enterprise applications. You can use any of these modules separately while constructing a Web application. The modules may also be grouped together to provide better functionalities in a Web application. Spring framework is loosely coupled because of dependency Injection.
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